On the night of May 10, 1933, an event unseen in Europe since the Middle Ages occurred as German students from universities once regarded as among the finest in the world, gathered in Berlin to burn books with “unGerman” ideas.

The students, along with brownshirted storm troopers, tossed heaps of books into a bonfire while giving the Hitler arm-salute and singing Nazi anthems. Among the 20,000 volumes hurled into the flames were the writings of Albert Einstein,Sigmund Freud, Maxim Gorki, Ernest Hemingway, Helen Keller, Jack London, Emil Ludwig, Heinrich Mann, Thomas Mann, Karl Marx, Marcel Proust, Erich Maria Remarque, Upton Sinclair,H.G. Wells, Theodor Wolff, Emilé Zola, Arnold Zweig, and Stefan Zweig.

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